1881 Census for Canada is a free Canadian census at Library and Archives Canada.

“The 1881 Census marked the second regularly scheduled collection of national statistics. It officially began April 4, 1881…. A total of 205 commissioners were appointed to coordinate the census. Reporting to the commissioners, 3,183 enumerators were then assigned to a clearly defined area…. Enumerators visited 192 census districts, divided into 2,139 sub-districts. These units were made up of cities, towns, groups of townships, Indian reserves, and other less well-defined areas. In 1881, it would have been almost impossible to conduct an enumeration of Aboriginal people over a great extent of the unorganized territory of Canada. For this reason, names of Aboriginals may not have been recorded for districts 187 (New Westminster, BC) and 192 (Northwest Territories)…. Enumerators collected information for 4,278,327 individuals distributed as follows: British Columbia (48,886); Manitoba (64,824); New Brunswick (321,251); Northwest Territories (10,973); Nova Scotia (440,558); Ontario (1,924,271); Prince Edward Island (108,911); Quebec (1,358,653)…. The enumeration data were collected using 8 documents, known as schedules, which included a total of 172 questions. Only Schedule 1 has been preserved…. Schedule 1, Nominal return of the living; Schedule 2, Nominal return of the deaths; Schedule 3, Real estate, public institutions and industrial establishments; Schedule 4, Use and productivity of owned land; Schedule 5, Livestock and animal products; Schedule 6, The extraction of raw materials from forests; Schedule 7, Production related to shipping and fishing; Schedule 8, The extraction of raw materials from mines.”


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