1901 Census for Canada is a free genealogy collection at Library and Archives Canada.
“The 1901 Census marked the fourth regularly scheduled collection of national statistics. It officially began March 31, 1901…. A total of 351 commissioners were appointed to coordinate the census. Reporting to the commissioners, 8,800 enumerators were then assigned to a clearly defined area. In some cases, members of the North West Mounted Police were used as enumerators…. Enumerators visited 206 census districts, divided into 3,204 sub-districts. These units were made up of cities, towns, groups of townships, Indian reserves, and other less well-defined areas…. Enumerators collected information for 5,371,315 individuals distributed as follows: British Columbia (178,657); Manitoba (255,211); New Brunswick (331,120); Nova Scotia (459,574); Ontario (2,182,947); Prince Edward Island (103,259); Quebec (1,648,898); Territories (211,649)…. The enumeration data were collected using 11 documents, known as schedules, which included a total of 561 questions. Only Schedules 1 and 2 have been entirely preserved. Schedule 1, Population; Schedule 2, Buildings and lands, churches and schools; Schedule 3, Deaths; Schedule 4, Farm land, fruits and plantations; Schedule 5, Field products; Schedule 6, Livestock and animal products; Schedule 7, Agricultural values; Schedule 8, Manufacturers; Schedule 9, Forest products and furs; Schedule 10, Fisheries; Schedule 11, Mines…. Enumerators used four additional special forms to account for the various situations they might encounter: Persons temporarily absent; Persons such as boarders and lodgers not present when the enumerator called and of whom particulars could not be given by the head of the household; Cheese and butter products; Manufacturers of clay products.”